All Essays

Essay Categories

* New categories are added as the project expands. 

** Some essays below are in multiple categories.

Many of our essays have been translated into Turkish

Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art

Aesthetics vs. Art by Brock Rough

Definitions of Art by Brock Rough

The Philosophy of Humor: What Makes Something Funny? by Chris A. Kramer

Videogames and Philosophy by Alex Fisher

Africana Philosophy

The African Ethic of Ubuntu by Thaddeus Metz

African American Existentialism: DuBois, Locke, Thurman, and King by Anthony Sean Neal

Buddhist Philosophy

Dharma in Abhidharma Buddhism by Nicholaos Jones

Chinese Philosophy

Mengzi’s Moral Psychology, Part 1: The Four Moral Sprouts by John Ramsey

Mengzi’s Moral Psychology, Part 2: The Cultivation Analogy by John Ramsey

The Ethics of Mozi: Social Organization and Impartial Care by Henrique Schneider

How to Establish Social Order? Three Early Chinese Answers by Henrique Schneider

Wu-Wei: Acting without Desire by Henrique Schneider

Ethics

Practical Ethics / Applied Ethics / Moral Principles

Applied Ethics by Chelsea Haramia

Business Ethics by Thomas Metcalf

Theories of Moral Considerability: Who and What Matters Morally? by Jonathan Spelman

Happiness by Kiki Berk

The Badness of Death by Duncan Purves

Is Death Bad? Epicurus and Lucretius on the Fear of Death by Frederik Kaufman

The Ethics of Abortion by Nathan Nobis

Ethics and Absolute Poverty: Peter Singer and Effective Altruism by Brandon Boesch

Longtermism: How Much Should We Care About the Far Future? by Dylan Balfour

Saving the Many or the Few: The Moral Relevance of Numbers by Theron Pummer

Euthanasia, or Mercy Killing by Nathan Nobis

Principlism in Biomedical Ethics: Respect for Autonomy, Non-Maleficence, Beneficence, and Justice by G. M. Trujillo, Jr.

The Non-Identity Problem by Duncan Purves

Reparations for Historic Injustice by Joseph Frigault

Ethics and the Expected Consequences of Voting by Thomas Metcalf

Removing Confederate Monuments by Travis Timmerman

Videogames and Philosophy by Alex Fisher

The Moral Status of Animals by Jason Wyckoff

Speciesism by Dan Lowe

The Ethics of Drone Strikes by Ryan Jenkins

Free Speech by Mark Satta

Licensing Parents by Ryan Jenkins

Theories of Punishment by Travis Joseph Rodgers

The Death Penalty by Benjamin S. Yost

Moral Luck by Jonathan Spelman

Existentialism by Addison Ellis

African American Existentialism: DuBois, Locke, Thurman, and King by Anthony Sean Neal

Camus on the Absurd: The Myth of Sisyphus by Erik Van Aken

Marx’s Conception of Alienation by Dan Lowe

Hope by Michael Milona & Katie Stockdale  

Feminism Part 1: The Sameness Approach by Annaleigh Curtis

Feminism Part 2: The Difference Approach by Annaleigh Curtis

Feminism Part 3: The Dominance Approach by Chelsea Haramia

What Is It To Love Someone? by Felipe Pereira 

Mary Astell’s “A Serious Proposal to the Ladies” (1694) by Simone Webb

Ethics and “Extra Credit” by Nathan Nobis

The Ontology of Race by Abiral Chitrakar Phnuyal

Aristotle’s Defense of Slavery by Dan Lowe

Responding to Morally Flawed Historical Philosophers and Philosophies by Victor Fabian Abundez-Guerra and Nathan Nobis

How to Establish Social Order? Three Early Chinese Answers by Henrique Schneider

George Orwell’s Philosophical Views by Mark Satta

Normative Ethics / Ethical Theories / Moral Principles 

Cultural Relativism: Do Cultural Norms Make Actions Right and Wrong? by Nathan Nobis

Deontology: Kantian Ethics by Andrew Chapman

Consequentialism by Shane Gronholz

Saving the Many or the Few: The Moral Relevance of Numbers by Theron Pummer

Mill’s Proof of the Principle of Utility by Dale E. Miller

John Stuart Mill on The Good Life: Higher-Quality Pleasures by Dale E. Miller

Virtue Ethics by David Merry

G. E. M. Anscombe’s “Modern Moral Philosophy” by Daniel Weltman

Because God Says So: On Divine Command Theory by Spencer Case

John Rawls’ ‘A Theory of Justice’ by Ben Davies

Social Contract Theory by David Antonini

“Nasty, Brutish, and Short”: Thomas Hobbes on Life in the State of Nature by Daniel Weltman

Ethical Egoism by Nathan Nobis

Why be Moral? Plato’s ‘Ring of Gyges’ Thought Experiment by Spencer Case

The African Ethic of Ubuntu by Thaddeus Metz

Situationism and Virtue Ethics by Ian Tully

Principlism in Biomedical Ethics: Respect for Autonomy, Non-Maleficence, Beneficence, and Justice by G. M. Trujillo, Jr.

Ursula Le Guin’s “The Ones who Walk Away from Omelas”: Would You Walk Away? by Spencer Case

Epistemic Injustice by Huzeyfe Demirtas

Ignorance and Blame by Daniel Miller

Praise and Blame by Daniel Miller

Evolution and Ethics by Michael Klenk

Mengzi’s Moral Psychology, Part 1: The Four Moral Sprouts by John Ramsey

Mengzi’s Moral Psychology, Part 2: The Cultivation Analogy by John Ramsey

Nietzsche and the Death of God by Justin Remhof

Plato’s Form of the Good by Ryan Jenkins

The Repugnant Conclusion by Jonathan Spelman

(Im)partiality by Shane Gronholz

Practical Reasons by Shane Gronholz

Reason is the Slave to the Passions: Hume on Reason vs. Desire by Daniel Weltman

Moral Testimony by Annaleigh Curtis

Free Will and Moral Responsibility by Chelsea Haramia

Alternate Possibilities and Moral Responsibility by Rachel Bourbaki

Manipulation and Moral Responsibility by Taylor W. Cyr

Expertise by Jamie Carlin Watson

Hell and Universalism by A.G. Holdier

Meta-Ethics / The Philosophy of Ethics 

Ethical Realism by Thomas Metcalf

Moral Error Theory by Ian Tully

Because God Says So: On Divine Command Theory by Spencer Case

Evolution and Ethics by Michael Klenk

Epistemology

Epistemology, or Theory of Knowledge by Thomas Metcalf

External World Skepticism by Andrew Chapman

Moore’s Proof of an External World: Responding to External World Skepticism by Chris Ranalli

The Gettier Problem & the Definition of Knowledge by Andrew Chapman

The Problem of Induction by Kenneth Blake Vernon

Indoctrination: What is it to Indoctrinate Someone? by Chris Ranalli

Modal Epistemology: Knowledge of Possibility and Necessity by Bob Fischer

Bayesianism by Thomas Metcalf

Take My Word for It: On Testimony by Spencer Case

Moral Testimony by Annaleigh Curtis

Critical Thinking: What is it to be a Critical Thinker? by Carolina Flores

Epistemic Injustice by Huzeyfe Demirtas

The Epistemology of Disagreement by Jonathan Matheson

Epistemic Injustice by Huzeyfe Demirtas

Interpretations of Probability by Thomas Metcalf

Hope by Michael Milona & Katie Stockdale  

Expertise by Jamie Carlin Watson

Descartes’ Meditations 1-3 and Descartes’ Meditations 4-6 by Marc Bobro

Descartes’ “I think, therefore I am” by Charles Miceli

Dutch Book Arguments by Daniel Peterson

George Orwell’s Philosophical Views by Mark Satta

Historical Philosophy

Aristotle’s Defense of Slavery by Dan Lowe

Plato’s Form of the Good by Ryan Jenkins

Why be Moral? Plato’s ‘Ring of Gyges’ Thought Experiment by Spencer Case

Plato’s Crito: When should we break the law? by Spencer Case

The Philosophy of Humor: What Makes Something Funny? by Chris A. Kramer

Is Death Bad? Epicurus and Lucretius on the Fear of Death by Frederik Kaufman

“Nasty, Brutish, and Short”: Thomas Hobbes on Life in the State of Nature by Daniel Weltman

Rousseau on Human Nature: “Amour de soi” and “Amour propre” by Corey McCabe

Reason is the Slave to the Passions: Hume on Reason vs. Desire by Daniel Weltman

Leibniz’s Principle of Sufficient Reason by Marc Bobro

Descartes’ Meditations 1-3 and Descartes’ Meditations 4-6 by Marc Bobro

Descartes’ “I think, therefore I am” by Charles Miceli

Mary Astell’s “A Serious Proposal to the Ladies” (1694) by Simone Webb

Idealism Pt. 1: Berkeley’s Subjective Idealism by Addison Ellis

Idealism Pt. 2: Kant’s Transcendental Idealism by Addison Ellis

John Stuart Mill on The Good Life: Higher-Quality Pleasures by Dale E. Miller

Nietzsche and the Death of God by Justin Remhof

Mengzi’s Moral Psychology, Part 1: The Four Moral Sprouts by John Ramsey

Mengzi’s Moral Psychology, Part 2: The Cultivation Analogy by John Ramsey

Islamic Philosophy

al-Ghazālī’s Dream Argument by John Ramsey

Logic and Reasoning

Critical Thinking: What is it to be a Critical Thinker? by Carolina Flores

Classical Syllogisms by Timothy Eshing

Contemporary Syllogisms by Timothy Eshing

Formal Logic: Symbolizing Arguments in Sentential Logic by Thomas Metcalf

Formal Logic: Symbolizing Arguments in Quantificational or Predicate Logic by Timothy Eshing

Modal Logic: Axioms and Systems for Alethic Modal Logic by Tom Metcalf

Expertise by Jamie Carlin Watson

Indoctrination: What is it to Indoctrinate Someone? by Chris Ranalli

The Problem of Induction by Kenneth Blake Vernon

Interpretations of Probability by Thomas Metcalf

Bayesianism by Thomas Metcalf

The Probability Calculus by Thomas Metcalf

Dutch Book Arguments by Daniel Peterson

Metaphilosophy, or Philosophy of Philosophy

What is Philosophy? by Thomas Metcalf

Philosophy and Its Contrast with Science by Thomas Metcalf

Responding to Morally Flawed Historical Philosophers and Philosophies by Victor Fabian Abundez-Guerra and Nathan Nobis

Metaphysics

Personal Identity by Chad Vance

Psychological Approaches to Personal Identity: Do Memories and Consciousness Make Us Who We Are? by Kristin Seemuth Whaley

Are We Animals? Animalism and Personal Identity by Kristin Seemuth Whaley

Origin Essentialism: What Could Have Been Different About you? by Chad Vance

Free Will and Free Choice by Jonah Nagashima

Free Will and Moral Responsibility by Chelsea Haramia

Praise and Blame by Daniel Miller

Alternate Possibilities and Moral Responsibility by Rachel Bourbaki

Manipulation and Moral Responsibility by Taylor W. Cyr

Time Travel by Taylor W. Cyr

Vagueness by Darren Hibbs

Attributes of God by Bailie Peterson

Hell and Universalism by A.G. Holdier

Modal Epistemology: Knowledge of Possibility & Necessity by Bob Fischer

Possibility and Necessity: An Introduction to Modality by Andre Leo Rusavuk

Leibniz’s Principle of Sufficient Reason by Marc Bobro

Idealism Pt. 1: Berkeley’s Subjective Idealism by Addison Ellis

Idealism Pt. 2: Kant’s Transcendental Idealism by Addison Ellis

Phenomenology and Existentialism

Existentialism by Addison Ellis

African American Existentialism: DuBois, Locke, Thurman, and King by Anthony Sean Neal

Meaning in Life: What Makes Our Lives Meaningful? by Matthew Pianalto

Happiness by Kiki Berk

Is Immortality Desirable? by Felipe Pereira

Camus on the Absurd: The Myth of Sisyphus by Erik Van Aken

“Hell Is Other People”: Sartre on Personal Relationships by Kiki Berk

The Badness of Death by Duncan Purves

Is Death Bad? Epicurus and Lucretius on the Fear of Death by Frederik Kaufman

Nietzsche and the Death of God by Justin Remhof

Hannah Arendt’s Political Thought by David Antonini

Philosophy of Education

Philosophical Inquiry in Childhood by Jana Mohr Lone

Ethics and “Extra Credit” by Nathan Nobis

Mary Astell’s “A Serious Proposal to the Ladies” (1694) by Simone Webb

Critical Thinking: What is it to be a Critical Thinker? by Carolina Flores

Indoctrination: What is it to Indoctrinate Someone? by Chris Ranalli

John Stuart Mill on The Good Life: Higher-Quality Pleasures by Dale E. Miller

Philosophy of Law

Philosophy of Law: An Overview by Mark Satta

Plato’s Crito: When should we break the law? by Spencer Case

Free Speech by Mark Satta

Social Contract Theory by David Antonini

John Rawls’ ‘A Theory of Justice’ by Ben Davies

Theories of Punishment by Travis Joseph Rodgers

The Death Penalty by Benjamin S. Yost

Just War Theory by Ryan Jenkins

The Prisoner’s Dilemma by Jason Wyckoff

Hannah Arendt’s Political Thought by David Antonini

Philosophy of Mind and Language

The Knowledge Argument Against Physicalism by Tufan Kıymaz

Frege’s Puzzle and the Meaning of Words by Graham Seth Moore

Vagueness by Darren Hibbs

Intentionality by Addison Ellis

Gricean Conversational Implicature: What We Say and What We Mean by Thomas Hodgson

Semantic Externalism by Rachel Bourbaki 

The Extended Mind by Rachel Bourbaki

Wittgenstein’s Private Language Argument by Ian Tully

George Orwell’s Philosophical Views by Mark Satta

Philosophy of Race

Philosophy and Race: An Introduction to Philosophy of Race by Thomas Metcalf

The Ontology of Race: What Are Races? by Abiral Chitrakar Phnuyal

Reparations for Historic Injustice by Joseph Frigault

Responding to Morally Flawed Historical Philosophers and Philosophies by Victor Fabian Abundez-Guerra and Nathan Nobis

Aristotle’s Defense of Slavery by Dan Lowe

Epistemic Injustice by Huzeyfe Demirtas

Philosophy of Religion

Attributes of God by Bailie Peterson

Agnosticism about God’s Existence by Sylwia Wilczewska

Cosmological Arguments for the Existence of God by Thomas Metcalf

Design Arguments for the Existence of God by Thomas Metcalf

The Ontological Argument for the Existence of God by Andrew Chapman

Modal Ontological Arguments for the Existence of God by Thomas Metcalf

Leibniz’s Principle of Sufficient Reason by Marc Bobro

Because God Says So: On Divine Command Theory by Spencer Case

The Problem of Evil by Thomas Metcalf

Divine Hiddenness by David Bayless

The Problem of No Best World by Kirk Lougheed

Can We Believe in Miracles? by Tomas Bogardus

Hell and Universalism by A.G. Holdier

Pascal’s Wager: A Pragmatic Argument for Belief in God by Liz Jackson

Is Immortality Desirable? by Felipe Pereira

Nietzsche and the Death of God by Justin Remhof

Hope by Michael Milona & Katie Stockdale

Expertise by Jamie Carlin Watson

Philosophy of Science

Laws of Nature by Michael Zerella

Thomas Kuhn, Paradigm Shifts, and Academic Rifts by Michael Zerella

Karl Popper and Falsificationism by Michael Zerella

Bayesianism by Thomas Metcalf

Philosophy of Space and Time: What is Space? and Philosophy of Space and Time: Are the Past and Future Real? by Dan Peterson

The Problem of Induction by Kenneth Blake Vernon

Evolution and Ethics by Michael Klenk

Quantum Mechanics and Philosophy I: The Superposition of Paths by Thomas Metcalf

Quantum Mechanics and Philosophy II: Measurement and Interpretations by Thomas Metcalf

Quantum Mechanics and Philosophy III: Implications by Thomas Metcalf

The Sleeping Beauty Problem by Daniel Peterson

Dutch Book Arguments by Daniel Peterson

Philosophy of Sex and Gender

Feminism Part 1: The Sameness Approach by Annaleigh Curtis

Feminism Part 2: The Difference Approach by Annaleigh Curtis

Feminism Part 3: The Dominance Approach by Chelsea Haramia

What Is Misogyny? by Odelia Zuckerman and Clair Morrissey

What Is It To Love Someone? by Felipe Pereira

Sexual Orientation, Sex, and Gender by Raja Halwani

Mary Astell’s “A Serious Proposal to the Ladies” (1694) by Simone Webb

Epistemic Injustice by Huzeyfe Demirtas

Social and Political Philosophy

John Rawls’ ‘A Theory of Justice’ by Ben Davies

Social Contract Theory by David Antonini

“Nasty, Brutish, and Short”: Thomas Hobbes on Life in the State of Nature by Daniel Weltman

Distributive Justice: How Should Resources be Allocated? By Dick Timmer and Tim Meijers

Philosophy of Law: An Overview by Mark Satta

Free Speech by Mark Satta

The Death Penalty by Benjamin S. Yost

Hannah Arendt’s Political Thought by David Antonini

Ethics and the Expected Consequences of Voting by Thomas Metcalf

Condorcet’s Jury Theorem and Democracy by Robert Weston Siscoe

Removing Confederate Monuments by Travis Timmerman

Defining Capitalism and Socialism and Arguments for Capitalism and Socialism by Thomas Metcalf

Reparations for Historic Injustice by Joseph Frigault

Aristotle’s Defense of Slavery by Dan Lowe

The African Ethic of Ubuntu by Thaddeus Metz

George Orwell’s Philosophical Views by Mark Satta

Feminism Part 1: The Sameness Approach by Annaleigh Curtis

Feminism Part 2: The Difference Approach by Annaleigh Curtis

Feminism Part 3: The Dominance Approach by Chelsea Haramia

Plato’s Crito: When should we break the law? by Spencer Case

Mary Astell’s “A Serious Proposal to the Ladies” (1694) by Simone Webb

Just War Theory by Ryan Jenkins

Licensing Parents by Ryan Jenkins

The Prisoner’s Dilemma by Jason Wyckoff

The Repugnant Conclusion by Jonathan Spelman

Marx’s Conception of Alienation by Dan Lowe

What other topics would you like to see addressed on 1000-Word Philosophy? Please email the editors with your suggestions.