Classical Syllogisms

The traditional "square of opposition."

Author: Timothy Eshing Category: Logic and Reasoning, Historical Philosophy Word Count: 999 Consider this argument: All humans are mammals. All mammals are animals. Therefore, all humans are animals. It’s an example of a classical syllogism. The logic of syllogisms, which are special kinds of deductive arguments, was famously discussed by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle … Continue reading Classical Syllogisms

Philosophy of Space and Time: What is Space?

Samuel Clarke and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

Categories: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Science, Historical Philosophy Author: Dan Peterson Word Count: 999 Imagine that every object in the universe – you, your chair, Earth, everything else – moved one meter to your left. Would you notice a difference? Facts about relative distances, like how far my chair is from me, would remain the same … Continue reading Philosophy of Space and Time: What is Space?

The Ethics of Mozi: Social Organization and Impartial Care

Mozi 墨翟

Author: Henrique Schneider Categories: Chinese Philosophy, Ethics, Social and Political Philosophy Word count: 994 Mo Di, or Mozi[1], (墨子, c. 470 – c. 391 BCE) is the founding figure of Mohism, a philosophical, social, and self-defense movement during the Warring States era (479–221 BCE) in China. Mohism, as much of early Chinese philosophy, ties ethics … Continue reading The Ethics of Mozi: Social Organization and Impartial Care

Condorcet’s Jury Theorem and Democracy

A fresco by Cesare Maccari (1840-1919 CE) depicting Roman senator Cicero (106-43 BCE) denouncing the conspirator Catiline in the Roman senate.

Author: Robert Weston Siscoe Category: Social and Political Philosophy Word Count: 999 Suppose that a majority of jurors decide that a defendant is guilty (or not), and we want to know the likelihood that they reached the correct verdict. The French philosopher Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794) showed that we can get a mathematically precise answer, … Continue reading Condorcet’s Jury Theorem and Democracy

What Is Misogyny?

Shepard Fairey's 2017 Triptych: "We the People: Greater Than Fear, Defend Dignity, & Protect Each Other"

Authors: Odelia Zuckerman and Clair Morrissey Categories: Philosophy of Sex and Gender, Ethics, Social and Political Philosophy, Philosophy of Race Word count: 998 The term misogyny[1] refers to systems that uphold gender-based oppression against women and girls. What those systems are, and how they operate, is a subject of philosophical debate. Here we explain two … Continue reading What Is Misogyny?

Gricean Conversational Implicature: What We Say and What We Mean

Paul Grice and the cover of his "Studies in the Way of Words."

Author: Thomas Hodgson Category: Philosophy of Mind and Language Word count: 997 Alex and Chris are making cabbage soup and realize that there isn’t any cabbage in the kitchen. Alex states ‘there is a market nearby’. Chris takes Alex to have said that there is a market nearby. Alex also meant that cabbage can be … Continue reading Gricean Conversational Implicature: What We Say and What We Mean

Formal Logic: Symbolizing Arguments in Quantificational or Predicate Logic

Rudolf Carnap’s notes on Gottlob Frege’s Begriffsschrift, the progenitor of modern quantificational logic.

Author: Timothy Eshing Category: Logic and Reasoning Word count: 1000 Editor’s note: for many readers, this essay would be more profitably read after reading Formal Logic: Symbolizing Arguments in Sentential Logic by Thomas Metcalf. There are many varieties of formal logic of varying complexity. Here we survey one that’s somewhat more complex than sentential or … Continue reading Formal Logic: Symbolizing Arguments in Quantificational or Predicate Logic