Author: Timothy Eshing Category: Logic and Reasoning, Historical Philosophy Word Count: 999 Consider this argument: All humans are mammals. All mammals are animals. Therefore, all humans are animals. It’s an example of a classical syllogism. The logic of syllogisms, which are special kinds of deductive arguments, was famously discussed by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle … Continue reading Classical Syllogisms
Categories: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Science, Historical Philosophy Author: Dan Peterson Word Count: 999 Imagine that every object in the universe – you, your chair, Earth, everything else – moved one meter to your left. Would you notice a difference? Facts about relative distances, like how far my chair is from me, would remain the same … Continue reading Philosophy of Space and Time: What is Space?
Author: Henrique Schneider Categories: Chinese Philosophy, Ethics, Social and Political Philosophy Word count: 994 Mo Di, or Mozi, (墨子, c. 470 – c. 391 BCE) is the founding figure of Mohism, a philosophical, social, and self-defense movement during the Warring States era (479–221 BCE) in China. Mohism, as much of early Chinese philosophy, ties ethics … Continue reading The Ethics of Mozi: Social Organization and Impartial Care
Author: Robert Weston Siscoe Category: Social and Political Philosophy Word Count: 999 Suppose that a majority of jurors decide that a defendant is guilty (or not), and we want to know the likelihood that they reached the correct verdict. The French philosopher Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794) showed that we can get a mathematically precise answer, … Continue reading Condorcet’s Jury Theorem and Democracy
Authors: Odelia Zuckerman and Clair Morrissey Categories: Philosophy of Sex and Gender, Ethics, Social and Political Philosophy, Philosophy of Race Word count: 998 The term misogyny refers to systems that uphold gender-based oppression against women and girls. What those systems are, and how they operate, is a subject of philosophical debate. Here we explain two … Continue reading What Is Misogyny?
Author: Thomas Hodgson Category: Philosophy of Mind and Language Word count: 997 Alex and Chris are making cabbage soup and realize that there isn’t any cabbage in the kitchen. Alex states ‘there is a market nearby’. Chris takes Alex to have said that there is a market nearby. Alex also meant that cabbage can be … Continue reading Gricean Conversational Implicature: What We Say and What We Mean
Author: Timothy Eshing Category: Logic and Reasoning Word count: 1000 Editor’s note: for many readers, this essay would be more profitably read after reading Formal Logic: Symbolizing Arguments in Sentential Logic by Thomas Metcalf. There are many varieties of formal logic of varying complexity. Here we survey one that’s somewhat more complex than sentential or … Continue reading Formal Logic: Symbolizing Arguments in Quantificational or Predicate Logic
An introduction to the Philosophy of Space and Time. Are the Past and Future Real?
An introduction to philosophy and race: an Introduction to Philosophy of Race.
This essay is an introduction to Bayesianism. Bayesianism says that degrees of belief or justification can be represented by probabilities, and that we can assess the rationality of degrees of belief — of credences — by seeing whether they follow a certain set of rules.