Agnosticism about God’s Existence

Balancing girl standing on a teeter-totter.

Author: Sylwia Wilczewska Category: Philosophy of Religion Word count: 997 Listen here One of the main debates in the philosophy of religion is between theists, who believe that God exists, and atheists, who believe there is no God.[1] However, not everyone interested in God’s existence is a theist or an atheist. The term “agnosticism”, coined … Continue reading Agnosticism about God’s Existence

Modal Ontological Arguments for the Existence of God

Author: Thomas Metcalf Category: Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics Word count: 994 Many people define God as a perfect being.[1] Some philosophers argue that it follows from this definition that God, if he (or she or it) exists at all, exists necessarily: he must exist. It might intuitively seem great or impressive if a being cannot possibly … Continue reading Modal Ontological Arguments for the Existence of God

Cosmological Arguments for the Existence of God

Author: Thomas Metcalf Categories: Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics, Historical Philosophy, Islamic Philosophy Word count: 1000 Why is there something rather than nothing? Intuitively, it could have been that nothing existed at all. Yet you and I are here, plus a whole universe of other stuff. We had parents, and our parents had parents, who had … Continue reading Cosmological Arguments for the Existence of God

Are We Animals? Animalism and Personal Identity

Woman and a dog in a car.

Author: Kristin Seemuth Whaley Category: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Religion Word Count: 995 What are we? Philosophers often look for answers that capture what we are fundamentally—what makes us who we are. Maybe we’re non-physical souls or minds.[1] Maybe we’re our thoughts and our memories. Or, perhaps we’re physical things like bodies or brains. According to a … Continue reading Are We Animals? Animalism and Personal Identity

Pascal’s Wager: A Pragmatic Argument for Belief in God

Pascal's wager image: person praying in front of a pile of poker chips.

Author: Liz Jackson Categories: Philosophy of Religion, Epistemology, or Theory of Knowledge, Historical Philosophy, Logic and Reasoning Word Count: 996 Should you believe there’s a God? To answer this, we might examine arguments for theism—like first-cause and design arguments—and arguments for atheism—like arguments from evil. These arguments offer evidence for and against God’s existence.[1] Pascal’s … Continue reading Pascal’s Wager: A Pragmatic Argument for Belief in God

al-Ghazālī’s Dream Argument for Skepticism


Author: John Ramsey Categories: Epistemology, Historical Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Islamic Philosophy Word Count: 997 Right now you probably think that you are awake, that you are not asleep and dreaming. But do you know you aren’t dreaming? French philosopher René Descartes (1596–1650) famously asked a question like this at the beginning of his Meditations … Continue reading al-Ghazālī’s Dream Argument for Skepticism

Is Immortality Desirable?

Bernard Williams.

Author: Felipe Pereira Categories: Ethics, Philosophy of Religion, Phenomenology and Existentialism Word Count: 998 Many people hope to live on after death, in heaven, forever. Even those who don’t believe in heaven usually agree that an eternal life there would be better than any finite, mortal life.[1] Are they correct? Some influential philosophers have argued … Continue reading Is Immortality Desirable?

The Concept of God: Divine Attributes

John Comenius, likely the first picture book dedicated to the education of young children, Orbis Sensualium Pictus – or The World of Things Obvious to the Senses drawn in Pictures, mid 17th-century.

Categories: Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics Author: Bailie Peterson Word Count: 1000 Theists believe God exists, atheists believe that God does not exist, and agnostics suspend judgment on the issue. But what do each of these mean by ‘God’? What is the concept of God that underlies the debate?[1] This essay explains three important features of … Continue reading The Concept of God: Divine Attributes