Modal Logic: Axioms and Systems for Alethic Modal Logic

An image of multiple instances of the planet Earth.

Author: Thomas Metcalf Category: Logic and Reasoning, Metaphysics Word count: 992 Philosophical arguments are usually about what’s actually the case: whether it’s actually true that God exists or whether it’s actually true that we have free will. But commonly, we also want to talk about whether something is possible or impossible, or whether it might … Continue reading Modal Logic: Axioms and Systems for Alethic Modal Logic

Possibility and Necessity: An Introduction to Modality

"Imagine The Possibilities" by Carol Groenen

Author: Andre Leo Rusavuk Category: Metaphysics Word count: 990 We frequently say things like, ‘This seems possible,’ ‘That can’t be done,’ ‘This must happen,’ ‘She might be able to . . ,’ ‘This is necessary for . .’ and so on.[1] Claims like these are modal claims. They involve the modal concepts of actuality, possibility, … Continue reading Possibility and Necessity: An Introduction to Modality

Modal Epistemology: Knowledge of Possibility & Necessity

"Imagine The Possibilities" by Carol Groenen

Author: Bob Fischer Categories: Epistemology, Metaphysics Word Count: 998 Alice hits Betty, and Betty gets mad. Is her anger justified? Betty thinks so. After all, Alice didn’t need to hit her; Alice could have controlled her temper. This justification for Betty’s anger seems reasonable. However, it isn’t reasonable unless we know that Alice could have behaved differently, and we don’t know that … Continue reading Modal Epistemology: Knowledge of Possibility & Necessity