Modal Logic: Axioms and Systems for Alethic Modal Logic

An image of multiple instances of the planet Earth.

Author: Thomas Metcalf Category: Logic and Reasoning, Metaphysics Word count: 992 Philosophical arguments are usually about what’s actually the case: whether it’s actually true that God exists or whether it’s actually true that we have free will. But commonly, we also want to talk about whether something is possible or impossible, or whether it might … Continue reading Modal Logic: Axioms and Systems for Alethic Modal Logic

Philosophy of Space and Time: What is Space?

Samuel Clarke and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

Categories: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Science, Historical Philosophy Author: Dan Peterson Word Count: 999 Imagine that every object in the universe – you, your chair, Earth, everything else – moved one meter to your left. Would you notice a difference? Facts about relative distances, like how far my chair is from me, would remain the same … Continue reading Philosophy of Space and Time: What is Space?

Praise and Blame

Van Gogh, "First Steps"

Author: Daniel Miller Categories: Ethics, Metaphysics Word Count: 1000 We praise people for morally good things: giving to charity, being generous, having compassion for the needy. We blame for morally bad things: cheating on one’s spouse, being selfish, harboring ill will towards others.[1] What are praise and blame, though? When are they appropriate? This essay … Continue reading Praise and Blame