The Buddhist denial of the existence of the self is known as anātman (or anattā). This essay explores some of the basics of anātman/anattā.
“Can They Suffer?”: Bentham on our Obligations to Animals
An overview of Jeremy Bentham's ethical views on animal rights, including the famous quote “the question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?”
Reason is the Slave to the Passions: Hume on Reason vs. Desire
An introduction to David Hume's theory of rationality and his famous quote that it's “not contrary to reason to prefer the destruction of the whole world to the scratching of my finger.”
“Nasty, Brutish, and Short”: Hobbes on Life in the State of Nature
An introduction to Thomas Hobbes and his views on life in the State of nature, including his quote that life in that state would be “Solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”